天球赤道是什么意思 天球赤道和黄道

天球赤道(Celestial equator):地球赤道投射到天空中的大圆圈,为天球三种主要的坐标系统之一。纬度的投影称为赤纬(Declination),经度的投影称为赤经(Right Ascension)(自天球赤道与黄道[Ecliptic]的交会点——白羊座开始起算)。

古代文献中,赤道常与黄道相提并论。黄道为太阳运行的轨道。由于赤道与黄道并非平行,中间有一斜交角,因此太阳在黄道运行时,从白羊座到处女座会在赤道的北方,亦称北纬,天秤座到双鱼座则在赤道的南方,即南纬。也因为如此,当太阳在北纬时,北半球的天气较南北球温暖,反之亦然。

以下为古典名家钦迪(Al-Kindi)描述气候冷热变化的片段。

天球赤道是什么意思 天球赤道和黄道

冷与热的增加与减少

The intensity of heat and cold may be measured in four “degrees” or stages. At the extreme of northern declinations (i.e., Cancer), hot is at four degrees, and cold in its first degree. As the Sun moves towards the equinox and then to the extremes of southern declination (i.e., Capricorn), heat decreases and cold increases, to become cold to the fourth degree and hot to the first; likewise as he moves back up towards the northern signs. At the equinoctial points, heat and cold are evenly balanced at two degrees.

冷与热的强度可分为四种程度或阶段。在北纬的最高点时(即巨蟹座),热度会来到四级,冷度只有一级。当太阳往秋分点移动,然后来到南纬的顶端时(即摩羯座),热度会降低来到一级,冷度则会增加来到四级的程度,当太阳重返北纬的星座则又重复一样的历程。若太阳来到交会点,热度与冷度则是相当的。

And I say that if the circuit of the Sun was in the degrees of circles equidistant to the equator of the day, there would be a season of only one nature, hot or cold. And the Sun, from the beginning of Libra to the beginning of Capricorn, is elongated from the northern portion, and that portion is made cold, and what is in it of moisture, flows, and it is coldness to the greatest extent while he comes to the beginning of Capricorn.

若太阳绕行的轨道与天体赤道相同,气候就只会有一种型态,不会有冷和热等四季的产生。而太阳从天秤座初度数绕行至摩羯座初度数时,与北方的距离会愈来愈远,此时北方的气候会变得冷与潮湿,或有大水,而当太阳来到摩羯座零度时将为最寒冷的时候。北纬的星座则又重复一样的历程。若太阳来到交会点,热度与冷度则是相当的。

(以上引自戴克博士的《世界占星学I》)

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